In this lesson we will study the last six sections of the Mosaic Age. By consulting the charts on the inside pages of this lesson, one can readily see at what period in Israel’s history the various prophets lived and prophesied. Also, the authors of the books of poetry are identified and the writings arranged in their proper place in Old Testament history. The book of Psalms contains songs of praise which were frequently sung in the religious meetings of the people. The books of Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, and Proverbs contain wise sayings. It is important for the student to understand conditions that existed at the time the prophets lived and wrote.

    Isaiah is called the messianic prophet because he speaks more of the first advent of Christ than any other Old Testament writer. The 53rd chapter of the book of Isaiah is one of the most beautiful and impressive prophecies concerning the coming of Christ. Isaiah is also the prophet who foretold the virgin birth.

    Jeremiah is called the weeping prophet because it was his duty to prophesy concerning the captivity of the nation. He also wrote the book of Lamentations.

    Ezekiel prophesied during the period of Babylonian captivity as did Daniel.

    Daniel. The book of Daniel contains some interesting information concerning the time of establishing Messiah’s kingdom. Daniel interpreted a dream for King Nebuchadnezzar in which he foretold that four great earthly kingdoms would arise. The last of these was to be the Roman Empire. He prophesied that in the days of this kingdom the God of heaven would set up a kingdom that would never be destroyed. Three of these earthly kingdoms had waxed and waned and the fourth was in power then. The people, therefore, expected the appearance of King Messiah.

    Jonah was sent to rebuke the people of Nineveh and exhort them to repent.
    Nahum lived 150 years after Jonah and had a similar mission to the Ninevites.
    Obadiah prophesied the doom of the nation of Edom.
    Hosea and Amos prophesied to the nation of Israel, while the seven other minor prophets were sent to the nation of Judah.
    Joel prophesied just before the Asyrian captivity.
    Haggai encouraged the people repairing the temple after the captivity.
    Zephaniah prophesied that a remnant of the people would be saved.
    Micah foretold that Christ would be born in Bethlehem of Judea.
    Zechariah prophesied certain events in the life of Christ, including the fact that he would be sold for thirty pieces of silver.
    Habakkuk assured the people that ultimately God’s purposes would be realized.
    Malachi is the last book in the Old Testament. He rebuked the people for their failure to conscientiously serve God. His chief complaint against the nation of Israel was that they did little more than pay lip service to Jehovah.


    Judges to the Kingdom
    Scriptures: Judges 1 to 1 Samuel 10
    From: B.C. 1400 to B.C. 1095. 305 years covered.

    Outstanding Characters
    Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Abimelech, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Samson, Eli, Samuel.

    Outstanding Events
    This section marks the beginning of an unbroken line of prophecies concerning Christ.
    During this period Israel was ruled by a series of judges. These judges are named above. During this time Israel became wicked and at various times in their history worshipped idols. They forgot all of the things that God had done for them and rebelled against the Mosaic law. Because of their sinful attitude God allowed the neighboring nations to invade Israel and harass his covenant people. This was done in an attempt to cause Israel to see the folly of not obeying God’s law. However, the nation seemed unwilling to learn and plunged deeper into sin.
    The book of Ruth was written during this period.


    Kingdom to the Division
    Scriptures: 1 Samuel 9 to 1 Kings 11: 1 Chronicles 10 to 2 Chronicles 9.
    From : B.C. 1095 to B.C. 975. 120 years covered.

    Outstanding Characters
    Saul, David, Solomon

    Outstanding Events
    After the people of Israel had been ruled by judges for a period of 305 years, they began to desire an earthly king that they might be like the nations around them. Though his displeased God and constituted a rejection of Jehovah as their King, God permitted them to have an earthly monarch.
    The first king to reign over Israel was Saul. He served well for a time, but soon disobeyed God and was rejected as king. He died in a war with the Philistines.
    Saul was succeeded by a man named David who was a son of Jesse. David was a good man and served the nation well. During his reign Israel became a world power. He died an old man, well loved by all his people.
    David was succeeded by his son, Solomon, who was given wisdom from God. He is usually called “the wise man”. During his reign the temple at Jerusalem was built. Solomon was sensual as a young man but became more spiritual later.
    The books of Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and Song of Solomon belong in this period.

    Division to Fall of Israel
    Scriptures: 1 Kings 12 to 2 Kings 20; 2 Chronicles 10-32
    From: B.C. 975 to B.C. 722. 253 years covered.

    Outstanding Characters
    Kings of Judah
    Rehoboam, Abijam, Asa Jehoshaphat, Jehoram, Ahaziah, Athaliah, Joash, Amaziah, Azariah, Jotham, Ahaz, Hezekiah.

    Kings of Israel
    Jeroboam, Nadab, Baasha, Elah, Zimri, Omri, Ahab, Ahaziah, Jehoram, Jehu, Jehoahaz, Jehoash, Jeroboam II, Zachariah, Shallum, Menahem, Pekahiah, Pekah, Hoshea.

    Elijah, Elisha, Isaiah

    Outstanding Events
    After the death of Solomon, his son attempted to assume his role as king of Israel. However, because of a rash and unjust decision, the people rejected him as king and a division of the kingdom followed. The northern half of the kingdom was called Israel; the southern half, Judah.
    The kingdom of Judah made a token effort to keep the Mosaic law, while the kingdom of Israel turned to idolatry and became very sinful. During the reign of Hoshea, the kingdom of Israel was carried captive to Assyria.
    The prophets Joel, Amos, Micah, Nahum, Isaiah, Jonah and Hosea belong in this period.


    Fall of Israel to Fall of Judah
    Scriptures: 2 Kings 21-25; 2 Chronicles 33-36
    From: B.C. 722 to B.C. 587. 135 years covered.

    Outstanding Characters
    Kings of Judah (Cont)
    Manasseh, Amon, Josiah, Jehoahaz II, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachim, Zedekiah.

    Outstanding Events
    After the fall and captivity of Israel, Judah continued alone for a period of 135 years. There was a revival of religion under Josiah and the prophet Jeremiah. However, the people soon fell into idolatry and became very wicked.

    God was displeased with Judah and allowed three invasions of the land. In the third and last invasion Jerusalem and the temple were destroyed and the people were carried as slaves to Babylon.

    Babylon had become a world power and had overcome the nation of Assyria.
    The books of Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Jeremiah and Lamentations belong in this period.


    Captivity to Return
    Scriptures: 2 Kings 25:8-21; Daniel
    From: B.C. 587 to B.C. 537. 50 years covered.

    Outstanding Character

    Outstanding Events
    It is in this section of the Bible that we read of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream, Daniel 2; the fiery furnace, Daniel 3; Belshazzar’s feast, Daniel 5; Daniel in the lion’s den, Daniel 6; Daniel’s vision of the restoration of Israel, Daniel 7; and Jeremiah’s letter, Jeremiah 29.

    The prophecies of Ezekiel and Daniel belong in this period.


    Return to Canaan to the End of O.T. History
    Scriptures: Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther
    From: B.C. 537 to about B.C. 445. About 92 years.

    Outstanding Characters
    Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther

    Outstanding Events
    Though the children of Israel were carried to Babylon as slaves, because of the experiences of Esther and other similar events, they soon enjoyed a certain amount of liberty. For this reason many of the Jews were happy in Babylon and had little desire to return to Canaan. However, a few devoted Israelites longed to return to their homeland, rebuild the temple and worship God.
    In order to effect the restoration, God raised up certain strong characters to lead the nation. Babylon fell to Persia, and Cyrus, King of that country, permitted the Jews who so desired to return to Jerusalem. There were three pilgrimages to Canaan; the first was under Zerubabel, the second under Ezra, and the third under Nehemiah. Nehemiah led a group to Jerusalem in the year 445 B.C. The temple was rebuilt, and the nation of Israel was once again in existence. However, they never again attained the prominence that they enjoyed under David and Solomon.
    The books of Haggai, Zachariah and Malachi belong to this period.

    Section 1-Fill In The Blanks

    Question 1
    Isaiah is called the __________ prophet

    Question 2
    Jeremiah wrote the book of __________.

    Question 3
    Daniel foretold that Messiah’s kingdom would be established in the days of the __________.

    Question 4
    The first king of Israel was __________.

    Question 5
    Solomon is usually called the __________.___.

    Question 6
    “And it came to pass, when all __________ heard that Jeroboam was come again, that they sent and called him unto the __________ and made him __________ over all Israel: There was none that followed the house of __________, but the tribe of Judah only” (1 Kings 12:20).

    Section 2-Select the Correct Answers

    Question 1
    After the division of Israel, the northern half of the kingdom was called:

    Question 2
    The prophets belonging to the period of the divided kingdoms are:

    Question 3
    After the fall of Israel, Judah continued alone for a period of:
    Six months253 years135 yearsthe kingdoms fell at the same time

    Question 4
    During the Babylonian captivity period the outstanding character was:

    Question 5
    After the Babylonian captivity the first return to Canaan was under the leadership of:

    Question 6
    In Babylonia the Jews enjoyed a certain amount of :

    Question 7
    A prophet of the restoration period was:

    Question 8
    Old Testament history ends about :
    445 B.C27 B.C6 A.D

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